COW COW Extra-State War Data, 1816-1997 (v3.0)


Overview

Version 3.0 of the Correlates of War Extra-State War data set identifies extrastate wars and their participants between 1816 and 1997. Extra state wars are wars between a state and a non-state entity. To be classified as an extra-state war, at least one major participant in the conflict (however irregular and disorganized) should not be a member of the state system and there should be at least 1000 battle related fatalities in every year for each of the state participants.


Citation

In any papers or publications that utilize this data set, users are asked to give the version number and cite the article of record for the data set, as follows:

Bibliography Entry: Sarkees, Meredith Reid (2000). "The Correlates of War Data on War: An Update to 1997," Conflict Management and Peace Science, 18/1: 123-144.

Additional information concerning the procedures followed to generate these data are to be found in the following publications.

Singer, J. David, and Melvin Small (1972). The Wages of War, 1816-1965: A Statistical Handbook. New York: John Wiley.

Small, Melvin, and J. David Singer (1982). Resort to Arms: International and Civil Wars, 1816-1980. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications.


Data Set

Version 3.0 of the Correlates of War Extra-State War data set is composed of two files, the formats of which are listed below. The files are CSV with the first line being variable lables. The first file, Extra-State Wars (V 3-0).CSV, presents information about the wars, while the second, Extra-State War Participants (V 3-0).CSV , contains information about the state participation in these wars.

Summaries of the Extra-State Wars and Extra-State War Participants data may be viewed.

Format of "Extra-State Wars" File

The file has a comma-separated-variable (CSV) format with one record per war. The fields contained in each record are listed below.

Field

Content

WarNo

War number

WarName

Name of war

WarType

2 = State conflict with a colony, 3 = State conflict with a non-state actor

YrBeg1

First beginning year of war

MonBeg1

First beginning month of war (-999 = missing)

DayBeg1

First beginning day of war (-999 = missing)

YrEnd1

First ending year of war

MonEnd1

First ending month of war (-999 = missing)

DayEnd1

First ending day of war (-999 = missing)

YrBeg2

Second beginning year of war (-999 = NA)

MonBeg2

Second beginning month of war (-999 = NA or missing)

DayBeg2

Second beginning day of war (-999 = NA or missing)

YrEnd2

Second ending year of war (-999 = NA)

MonEnd2

Second ending month of war (-999 = NA or missing)

DayEnd2

Second ending day of war (-999 = NA or missing)

NonState

Name of non-state participant

Winner

Victorious side in war (1 = state, 2 = colony/non-state, 3 = state after war becomes an inter-state war, 4 = colony/non-state after war becomes an inter-state war, 5 = no winner/war ongoing as of 10/98, 6 = stalemate)

Interven

Outside intervention in war? (1 = yes, 0 = no)

MinDur

Minimum duration of war in days*

MaxDur

Maximum duration of war in days*

StDeaths

Total battle deaths of state participants (-999 = missing)

ToDeaths

Total battle deaths of all participants (-999 = missing)

CenSubSy

At least one central sub-system member in war? (0 = no/NA [all coded "0" after 1920], 1 = yes)

MajPowIn

At least one major power in the war? (0 = no, 1 = yes)

WestHem

Was any part of the war fought in Western Hemisphere? (0 = no, 1 = yes)

Europe

Was any part of the war fought in Europe? (0 = no, 1 = yes)

Africa

Was any part of the war fought in Africa? (0 = no, 1 = yes)

MidEast

Was any part of the war fought in Middle East? (0 = no, 1 = yes)

Asia

Was any part of the war fought in Asia? (0 = no, 1 = yes)

Oceania

Was any part of the war fought in Oceania? (0 = no, 1 = yes)

Edition

Update code (0 = 1972 original, 1 = 1982 update, 2 = 1990 update, 3 = 1992 update, 4 = 1998 update)

Version

Version number of data set

 

* Minimum and maximum duration values are calculated by assuming values for any missing beginning and/or ending months/days that would be consistent with the shortest and longest possible time span for the war participation.

 

Format of "Extra-State War Participants" File

The file has a comma-separated-variable (CSV) format with one record per war-participating state. There are no records for the colonies/non-states that participated in the wars. The fields contained in each record are listed below.

Field

Content

WarNo

War number

StateNum

COW country code of participant

StateAbb

Abbreviated name of participant

YrBeg1

First beginning year of participant's involvement

MonBeg1

First beginning month of participant's involvement (-999 = missing)

DayBeg1

First beginning day of participant's involvement (-999 = missing)

YrEnd1

First ending year of participant's involvement

MonEnd1

First ending month of participant's involvement (-999 = missing)

DayEnd1

First ending day of participant's involvement (-999 = missing)

YrBeg2

Second beginning year of participant's involvement (-999 = NA)

MonBeg2

Second beginning month of participant's involvement (-999 = NA or missing)

DayBeg2

Second beginning day of participant's involvement (-999 = NA or missing)

YrEnd2

Second ending year of participant's involvement (-999 = NA)

MonEnd2

Second ending month of participant's involvement (-999 = NA or missing)

DayEnd2

Second ending day of participant's involvement (-999 = NA or missing)

MinDur

Minimum length of war participation in days*

MaxDur

Maximum length of war participation in days*

Deaths

Number of battle related deaths sustained by participant's armed forces in war (-999= missing)

IntSide

On which side did participant intervene? (0 = NA/state is primary actor in war, 1 = on side of state; 2 = on side of colony/non-state, 3 = on neither side)

Initiate

Did state initiate war? (0 = no, 1 = yes)

SysStat

System membership status of state (1 = neither central sub-system member nor major power, 2 = central sub-system member only [only relevant 1816 through 1919], 3 = central sub-system member & a major power [only relevant 1816 through 1919], 4 = major power only)

PrWarPop

Pre-war population in thousands (number from year war begun, -999 = missing)

PrWarArm

Pre-war armed forces in thousands (number from year war begun, -999 = missing)

WestHem

Did state participant engage in fighting in war in Western Hemisphere? (0 = no, 1 = yes)

Europe

Did state participant engage in fighting in war in Europe? (0 = no, 1 = yes)

Africa

Did state participant engage in fighting in war in Africa? (0 = no, 1 = yes)

MidEast

Did state participant engage in fighting in war in Middle East? (0 = no, 1 = yes)

Asia

Did state participant engage in fighting in war in Asia? (0 = no, 1 = yes)

Oceania

Did state participant engage in fighting in war in Oceania? (0 = no, 1 = yes)

Version

Version number of data set

 

* Minimum and maximum duration values are calculated by assuming values for any missing beginning and/or ending months/days that would be consistent with the shortest and longest possible time span for the war participation.



Questions and Feedback

The war data sets are hosted by Meredith Sarkees, Women & Politics Institute at American University, and Frank Wayman, University of Michigan-Dearborn, under the COW Data Set Hosting Program. In case of questions or concerns concerning the data or coding rules, they may be contacted by email at sarkees@sbcglobal.net and fwayman@umich.edu.