|COW||Militarized Interstate Disputes (v4.01)|
Version 4 of the Militarized Interstate Dispute (MID) data collection compiled by the Correlates of War Project provides information about conflicts in which one or more states threaten, display, or use force against one or more other states between 1816 and 2010. By definition, “Militarized interstate disputes are united historical cases of conflict in which the threat, display or use of military force short of war by one member state is explicitly directed towards the government, official representatives, official forces, property, or territory of another state. Disputes are composed of incidents that range in intensity from threats to use force to actual combat short of war” (Jones et al. 1996: 163).
Version 3.10 of the MID data set covered the 1816-2001 period. The data collection project that culminated in version 4.0 gathered new data on all MIDs that began between 2002 and 2010, along with those MIDs that began before 2002 but were still ongoing on December 31, 2001. Version 4 also updates the earlier data set with corrections made after an investigation of cases where errors or discrepancies had been reported to the COW project between 2007 and 2013. The version 4 MID data should be considered to supersede other MID data sets.
In any papers or publications that utilize this data set, users are asked to give the version number and cite the article of record for the data set, as follows:
Main Bibliography Entry: Palmer, Glenn, Vito D'Orazio, Michael Kenwick, and Matthew Lane. Forthcoming. "The MID4 Data Set, 2002-2010: Procedures, Coding Rules and Description." Conflict Management and Peace Science.
MID 3 citation: Ghosn, Faten, Glenn Palmer, and Stuart Bremer. 2004. "The MID3 Data Set, 1993–2001: Procedures, Coding Rules, and Description." Conflict Management and Peace Science 21:133-154.
MID 2.1 codebook/citation. The codebook for the MID data version 3.0 builds on the documentation for the MID version 2.1 data set, which is available online: Daniel M. Jones, Stuart A. Bremer and J. David Singer (1996) ."Militarized Interstate Disputes, 1816-1992: Rationale, Coding Rules, and Empirical Patterns." Conflict Management and Peace Science, 15(2): 163:213.
The latest iteration of the Correlates of War Project's Militarized Interstate Dispute Data (MID 4) covers the period 2002-2010, adding to the MID data gathered for the period 1816-2001. MID 4.0 was developed largely at the Pennsylvania State University under the direction of Glenn Palmer and with the assistance of two grants from the National Science Foundation (SES-0719634 and SES-0924240). Financial and research support from the Department of Political Science at Penn State University was provided and aided the project significantly. Phil Schrodt, Scott Bennett (Penn State) and Paul Diehl (Illinois) were instrumental in the development and completion of the project. Colleagues at Rice University and the University of Alabama, directed by Richard Stoll and Doug Gibler, respectively, provided timely and valued assistance.
An article of record for the MID 4 Data is in preparation as of January, 2014. We will be announcing the specifics of that article shortly.
A re-evaluation of the MID data for the years 1816-2001 is currently (January, 2014) in progress. We anticipate that a number of disputes and incidents will be altered in some form or removed from the data completely. We will release the revised data, explaining the changes made, as soon as possible.
The files associated with the MID 4 data set can be obtained individually. All data files are in .csv (comma-delimited) format. In this format, values are separated by commas, with string values (e.g. state names) in quotations. The first line of each data file is a header record containing the variable names.
MID-level data and documents:
|MID_v4.0_Codebook.pdf||Main codebook for the MID 4.0 data set, describing file formats and listing variables contained in the MIDA and MIDB data files.|
|MIDA_4.01.csv||Data on MIDs from 1816-2010, at the dispute level. Contains one record per militarized dispute.|
|MIDB_4.01.csv||Data on MIDs from 1816-2010, at the participant level. Contains one record per militarized dispute participant.|
|MID_Narratives_1993-2001.pdf||Narratives for 1993-2001 MIDs containing a brief prose summary of key actors and actions.|
|MID_Narratives_2002-2010.pdf||Narratives for 2002-2010 MIDs containing a brief prose summary of key actors and actions.|
Incident-level data and documents:
|MII_v4.0_Codebook.pdf||Main codebook for the MID 4.0 incident data sets, describing file formats and listing variables contained in the MIDI and MIDIP data files.|
|MIDI_4.01.csv||Data on incidents within MIDs from 1993-2010 (along with disputes ongoing as of 12/31/1992), at the incident level. Contains one record per militarized incident.|
|MIDIP_4.01.csv||Data on incidents within MIDs from 1993-2010 (along with disputes ongoing as of 12/31/1992), at the incident-participant level. Contains one record per participant in each incident.|
Dyadic MID data and documentation (MID 3.1 only; MID 4 coming soon):
|Codebook for Dyadic MID Data v3.10.pdf||Main codebook for the dyadic version of the MID 3 data set, describing coding procedures and the dyadic file format, and listing variables.|
|MIDDyadic_3.10.csv||Data on dyadic MIDs from 1993-2001 (along with disputes ongoing as of 12/31/1992), at the dyad level. Contains one record per dyadic MID.|
Documents discussing data changes:
|MID_Changes_as_of_v4.0.pdf||Document discussing changes made to MID data between MID v3.10 and v4.0.|
|MID_v3.0.associated document.pdf||Auxiliary information presented during release of the MID 3.0 data set, including discussion of new and changed variables relative to MID 2.1, updates, and a discussion of particular case codings in MID 3.0.|
|Discussion - MID changes as of v3.10.pdf||Document discussing changes made to MID data since v3.02.|
|Discussion - MIDs reviewed and unchanged as of v3.10.pdf||Document discussing changes/questions examined, but where changes were not needed.|
Source data include the citations to the original materials used to
code each dispute or incident.
All data files are in .csv (comma-delimited) format. In this format, values are separated by commas, with string values (e.g. state names) in quotations. The first line of each data file is a header record containing the variable names.
|MID v4.0_GeneralSources.pdf||List of the sources used in coding the MID 4.0 data set.|
Source Data for MID 3.0: The source data used to code the MID 3.0 data set can be obtained either individually, or in one ZIP file that contains several files.
|MID 3.0 SourceData Codebook.pdf||Main codebook for the sources used in MID 3.0 data set, listing variables.|
|MID 3.0 Standard Source Abbreviations.pdf||Main codebook for the sources used in MID 3.0 data set, listing variables.|
|Data on sources used to code incidents in MIDs from 1993-2001. The number of records per incident corresponds the number of sources used to code any given incident.|
Source Data for MID 2.1: The source data used to code the MID 2.1 data set can be obtained either individually, or in one ZIP file that contains several files.
|MID 2.1 SourceData Codebook.pdf||Main codebook for the sources used in MID 2.1 data set, providing historical overview of the project and listing variables.|
|MID2.1_SpecificSources.csv||Data on sources used to code incidents in MIDs prior to 1993. The number of records per MID corresponds the number of sources used to code any given dispute.|
|MID2.1_GeneralSources.csv||Data on sources used to code MIDs prior to 1993. The file contains the full names for sources which are abbreviated in the source data file, and sources contained in the COW MID bibliography that do not correspond to specific MID numbers.|
Version 3.0 of the Correlates of War Inter-State War data set is matched to Version 3.10 of the Militarized Interstate Dispute (MID) data set. Each interstate war between 1816 -1997 has its corresponding dispute. This report is available for download here.
Version 3.0 was developed through a 3-year multi-university initiative supported by the National Science Foundation. The project would not have been completed without the participation of co-PIs Scott Bennett, Stuart Bremer, Paul Diehl, Dan Geller, Doug Gibler, Paul Hensel, Chuck Gochman, Zeev Maoz, Glenn Palmer, Brian Pollins, Jim Ray, Pat Regan, and Ric Stoll. We have preserved the key documents used during the project's data creation phase. To access these documents, or to review the participants in the project, select among the following links:
Dyadic MID data is only available from the Correlates of War project from 1993-2001, because incident data (showing direct dyadic interaction) has only been systematically coded since 1993. For the pre-1993 period, either assumptions must be made in coding dyadic interaction (critically, that all states on opposite sides interacted), or additional research must be performed to identify actual interactions. In addition, coding to a dyadic form must carefully check dates of state involvement to verify that states were opponents at the same time.
MID v.2.1 (running from 1816-1992):
|MID 2.1.zip||The .zip file contains main codebook in .txt format and three data files in .txt format.|
MID v.2.1EE provides information on a subset of escalatory incidents in 1816-1992:
|MID 2.1 EE.zip||The .zip file contains main codebook in .pdf format and the data file in .csv format.|
There are two other versions of the dyadic MID data available for the pre-1992 period which tackle these issues in different ways. Extensive documentation on procedures are available in the documentation at both sites:
Scott Bennett’s EUGene software (v3.2, 2008):
|http://www.eugenesoftware.org/||EUGene generates dyadic MID data from 1816-2001 using the most recent MID data (3.1). It allows data to be formatted with several units of analysis, including dyadic-dispute, dyadic-dispute-year, and dyad-year formats, each directed or nondirected. EUGene constructs dyads of states involved on opposite sides at the same time, but does not add new historical research.|
Zeev Maoz’s dyadic MID data (v2.0, 2005):
|http://psfaculty.ucdavis.edu/zmaoz/dyadmid.html/||The data set incorporates historical research on individual dyads rather than just taking all possible dyadic combinations, but does not use the most recent MID data and contains some unilateral coding changes to the data.|
The militarized dispute data are hosted by Glenn Palmer, Pennsylvania State University, under the COW Data Set Hosting Program. In case of questions or concerns concerning the data or coding rules, he may be contacted by email at firstname.lastname@example.org.